三江源国家公园

Sanjiangyuan National Park

2021-05-25

为什么三江源如此重要 Why is Sanjiangyuan so important


三江源地区位于青藏高原腹地,平均海拔4000米以上,总面积39.5万平方公里,是中国乃至亚洲的重要水源涵养地,长江、黄河、澜沧江在此发源,其中长江、黄河是中华民族的母亲河,澜沧江是流经六国的重要国际河流。

Located in the hinterland of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an average altitude of over 4,000 meters and a total area of 395,000 square kilometers, the Sanjiangyuan area is an important water source for China and even Asia. The Yangtze, Yellow, and Lancang Rivers all originate from here. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers are the mother rivers of the Chinese nation and the Lancang River is an important international river that flows through six countries.


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图片来源:三江源国家公园官网 Source:Sanjiangyuan Nationa Park Website 


The Yangtze River: originates from the Tanggula Mountains, with a total length of 6,380 km

The Yellow River: originates from the Bayankara Mountains in Qinghai, with a total length of 6,380 km

The Lancang River: originates from the north side of the Tanggula Mountains in Zadoi County of Yushu Prefecture, Qinghai. After exiting the Mengla County, Yunnan, it becomes the international river Mekong, with a total length of 4,909 km, of which 2,139 km is within the territory of China.


三江所经过的流域总面积接近我国国土总面积的三分之一,域内生活着7亿人,超过我国人口总数的一半,一定程度上,三江奠定了中华民族生存空间最为重要的骨架。然而,长江总水量的25%、黄河的49%和澜沧江的15%都来自其源头地区,生活在江源地区的藏族人民们以游牧为主,这种对水资源消耗极少的生活方式,为下游的人们腾出了用水的空间。

The total drainage area of these three rivers is close to one third of the total area of China. 700 million people reside within the basin, accounting for more than half of the total population of China. To a certain extent, the three rivers have laid the foundation of lives for the Chinese people. However, 25% of the total water flow of the Yangtze River, 49% of the Yellow River and 15% of the Lancang River come from the Sanjiangyuan area. The Tibetan people living here are mainly nomadic herders. This way of life, which consumes very little water, frees up the space for people from downstream areas to use water.


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图片来源:三江源国家公园官网 Source:Sanjiangyuan Nationa Park Website 


三江源所在的青藏高原是这座星球上最年轻的高原,它由平地隆升至高原的再造经历深刻影响了中国的地理格局,使中国东南地区避免了沙漠化的命运,成为了宜居的“鱼米之乡”,同时,也使西北地区堆积起土质疏松的黄土高原,并形成了长江、黄河、澜沧江等大型水系的格局…..

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where the Sanjiangyuan area is located, is the youngest plateau on the planet. Its re-creation from flat land to plateau has profoundly influenced the geographical pattern of China, making the southeastern part of China avoid the fate of desertification and become a livable “land of fish and rice”. It also helped the formation of the Loess Plateau with loose soil in the northwest as well as large water systems such as the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River.

因此,位于青藏高原腹地的三江源地区成为了中国乃至亚洲的重要水源涵养地,更是被誉为“中华水塔”,由于其独特的气候特征、特殊的地理位置和丰富的物种基因,占有不可替代的生态战略地位。

Therefore, the Sanjiangyuan area, located in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, has become an important water-conserving area for China and even Asia. It is also known as the “Water Tower of China”, occupying an irreplaceable eco-strategic position due to its unique climatic characteristics, special geographical location and rich gene diversity.



三江源国家公园的诞生 The Birth of Sanjiangyuan National Park


 “国家公园”(National Park)的概念最早起源于美国,世界上第一个国家公园黄石国家公园也诞生于美国。那么什么是国家公园呢?

The concept of "National Park" first originated in the United States, where the world’s first national park, Yellowstone National Park, was born. So, what is a national park?

国家公园是保护大面积自然生态系统、地质遗迹、物种、具有自然审美和文化价值的区域,具有国家代表性,能够为当代人和子孙后代提供公益性教育、游憩和科研机会。相比以审美体验为主要目标的风景区,国家公园是生态价值及其原真性和完整性最高的地区。

A national park is a landscape that protects a large area of natural ecosystems, geological sites, species, and places that have natural aesthetic and cultural values. It is nationally representative, and can provide public benefit in education, recreation, and research opportunities for current and future generations. Compared to scenic areas where aesthetic experience is the main goal, national parks are areas with the highest ecological value in terms of originality and integrity.

2015年,三江源国家公园体制试点成为我国第一个国家公园体制试点,2020年内,国家将正式设立三江源国家公园。2017年,两办印发的《建立国家公园体制总体方案》中提到:“以加强自然生态系统原真性、完整性保护为基础,以实现国家所有、全民共享、世代传承为目标”,“为公众提供亲近自然、体验自然、了解自然以及作为国民福利的游憩机会”,同时,“加大宣传力度,提升宣传效果。培养国家公园文化,传播国家公园理念,彰显国家公园价值”。

In 2015, the Sanjiangyuan National Park became the first national park system pilot project in China. In the year of 2020, the country will formally establish the Sanjiangyuan National Park. In 2017, the Overall Plan for Establishing the National Park System jointly issued by the general offices of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the State Council mentioned that “based on strengthening the protection of the originality and integrity of the natural ecosystem, with the goal of achieving national ownership, public sharing, and heritage,” the national park will “provide the public with opportunities to get close to nature, experience nature, understand nature, and recreation as a national welfare,” as well as “increase publicity efforts, enhance the effectiveness of publicity, foster the national park culture, spread the national park concept, and highlight the value of national parks.”

因此,三江源国家公园不仅需要保护、展示和传承自然与文化,为游客提供游憩场所,而且承担着树立和示范一种创新的区域性保护和发展模式的目标,从而推动和保障具有国家战略意义的重要生态功能区的全面保护与协调发展。

Therefore, Sanjiangyuan National Park not only needs to conserve, exhibit and inherit nature and culture, provide recreational places for tourists, but also undertakes the goal to establish and demonstrate an innovative regional conservation and development model, thus promoting and guaranteeing the comprehensive conservation and coordinated development of an important ecological function area of national strategic importance.


国家林草局、新华网联合出品大型系列专题片《国家公园》,本视频为第一集

Episode 1 of National Parks, documentary jointly produced by National Forestry and Grassland Administration and Xinhua News



国家公园如何平衡保护与发展 How National Parks Balance Conservation and Development


不同于美国、加拿大等国家在建立国家公园时,拥有大片荒野和无人区,园内人口很少,我国在建立国家公园等自然保护地时,区域内都分布着或多或少的居民,社区如何与国家公园协调发展便成为一个重要课题。2018年以来,国家公园推行生态管护公益岗位“一户一岗”制度,即每一户都设置了一名生态管护员,使当地居民收入增长,并成为生态保护主体。

Unlike the United States, Canada and other countries that have large wilderness and uninhabited areas with few people living within the boundaries of national parks, China often encounters problem of having residents living in the area before the national park project began. How do communities develop in harmony with the national parks has thus become an important issue. Since 2018, the national parks have implemented the One Ranger Per Household policy, with each family having one ecological ranger, increasing local residents’ income and protecting the ecological system at the same time.

目前,三江源国家公园按照生态系统功能、保护目标将各园区划分为核心保育区、生态保育修复区、传统利用区,其中传统利用区是当地牧民的传统生活、生产空间,可适度开展生态体验和生态产业等。

At present, Sanjiangyuan National Park is divided into core conservation zones, ecological conservation and restoration zones, and traditional utilization zones according to ecosystem functions and conservation objectives. Among these, traditional utilization zones are for the traditional living and production of local herders and can be moderately developed for ecological experience and industries.


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图片来源:三江源国家公园官网 Source:Sanjiangyuan Nationa Park Website


昂赛乡位于三江源国家公园澜沧江源园区内,地属玉树藏族自治州杂多县,包括年都村、热情村和苏绕村,共有牧民八千余人。2018年,昂赛自然体验项目试点开始运行,是经三江源国家公园澜沧江源园区昂赛管护站授权后,由牧民担任自然体验向导、司机和接待家庭,带领自然体验者在昂赛乡观赏自然景观、游览文化景观、体验牧区生活的相关活动。

Angsai Township is located in the Lancang River Section of Sanjiangyuan National Park, which belongs to Zaduo County of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and consists of three villages (Niandu Village, Reqing Village, and Surao Village) with a total of more than 8,000 herders. In 2018, the nature watch pilot project of Angsai started. It is authorized by the management station of Angsai in Lancang River Section of Sanjiangyuan National Park. In this project, local herders serve as nature watch guides, drivers and host families, leading nature watch participants to view the natural and cultural landscape and experience the pastoral life in the township of Angsai.

自然体验项目将自然保护和社会发展融为一体。当地牧民通过担任自然体验的向导和接待家庭,可以获得切实的收入,直观地体会到保护好家乡的一片山水、爱护山林间的野生动物,将有益家庭和社区的发展。

Nature watch program integrates nature conservation and social development. By serving as guides and host families, local herders can earn additional income and realize that protecting their home landscape and animals will benefit their own families and communities.