昂赛大峡谷

Angsai Valley

2021-05-25

三江源的气候是典型的高原大陆性气候,没有明显的四季,只有冷季和暖季。三江源的平均海拔在四千米以上,地貌以山地为主,西部和北部海拔较高,山地起伏较小,呈高原丘陵的地貌特征;东部和东南部海拔较低,山地起伏变化剧烈,呈高山峡谷的地貌。在面积广大的三江源区域,分布着森林、草地、湿地、荒漠等多种生态系统。

The climate of Sanjiangyuan is a typical highland continental climate with no distinct seasons and distinguished only as cool and warm seasons. The average height of Sanjiangyuan is above 4,000 meters, and the landscape is mainly mountainous. The western and northern parts have higher elevation and smaller mountain undulations, showing the geomorphic characteristics of plateau hills; the eastern and southeastern parts have lower elevation and dramatic mountain undulations, showing the geomorphic characteristics of alpine gorges. In the vast area of Sanjiangyuan, there are various ecosystems such as forests, grasslands, wetlands, and deserts.


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图片来源:三江源国家公园官网 Source: Sanjiangyuan National Park Website 


地形地貌 Terrain and Landform


昂赛区域保留了青藏高原远近地质活动痕迹,有着青藏高原发育最为完整的白垩纪丹霞地质景观,以及与之不整合接触的石炭、二叠纪石灰岩峰林景观,记录了澜沧江上游发育的河谷特征,显示出比较完整的草原—森林生态系统和生物多样性景观系统。

Angsai area retains traces of geological activities on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and has the most completely developed Cretaceous Danxia landform on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, as well as the Carboniferous and Permian limestone karst landscape. These record the characteristics of the river valleys developed in the upstream area of Lancang River, showing a relatively complete grassland-forest ecosystem and biodiversity landscape system.


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昂赛丹霞区拥有类似西南丹霞区和东南丹霞区的地貌形态,由于其位于青藏高原向云贵高原的过渡地带,在板块边缘部分受到强烈的切割作用形成了规模宏大的赤壁丹霞景观;同时,在构造内部的区域,地处三江源源头区,河流下切慢且缓,形成巷谷、石峰、石柱等地貌形态。

The Angsai Danxia area has similar geographical forms as the southwest and southeast Danxia areas. Because it is located in the transition zone from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, the strong cutting effect on the edge part of the plate has formed Danxia landscape of tremendous scale; at the same time, the stream trenching in the Sanjiangyuan area is very slow, forming geomorphic forms such as valleys, stone peaks and stone pillars.


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Tips. 什么是丹霞:一般认为,有陡崖的陆相红层地貌称为丹霞地貌,由产状水平或平缓的层状铁钙质混合不均匀胶结而成的红色碎屑岩,受垂直或高角度节理切割,并在差异风化、重力崩塌、流水溶蚀、风力侵蚀等综合作用下形成。通常拥有“顶平、身陡、麓缓”的形态特征,并且看上去赤城层层,云霞片片,有“色若渥丹,灿若明霞”之誉。

Tips. What is Danxia Landform? It is generally agreed that landform with continental red beds with steep cliffs is called Danxia landform. It is made of red clastic rocks with horizontal or gentle laminated iron-calcium mixed with uneven cementation, cut by vertical or high-angle joints, and formed under the combined effect of differential weathering, gravity collapse, water dissolution and wind erosion. It usually has the characteristics of “flat top, steep body, and slow bottom” and looks like layers of red clouds. It is renowned for its bright haze.



自然生境 Natural Habitat


昂赛植物垂直分布较明显,在山地灰褐色森林土或者山地石质地土主要以大果圆柏林为建群种,下木草本较为丰富;在高山草甸生境中,主要以小蒿草和蓼科植物为主;介于高山草甸生境和石质山之间有一部分区域为高山灌丛草甸,该区域的植被主要以山生柳灌丛为主,伴生种有金露梅、鲜卑木、鬼箭锦鸡儿等;在海拔更高的区域,以石质山以及碎石带为主,草本和木本植物更少。

The vertical distribution of vegetation in Angsai is quite pronounced. In the mountain grey-cinnamon forest soil or mountain orthent areas, the main constructive species is Juniperus tibetica, with lush understory herbs. The alpine meadow habitat mainly grows wormwood and Polygonaceae plants. Because part of the area between the alpine meadow habitat and the stony mountains is the alpine shrub meadow habitat, the vegetation in this area is mainly composed of mountain willow shrubs, with accompanying species such as shrubby cinquefoil, Sibiraea Maxim plants and Caragana jubat. In higher altitude areas of stony mountains or gravel belts, there are fewer herbs and woody plants.


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丰富多样的生境类型为众多野生动物提供了适宜的栖息地,既有适应于高山森林生境的林栖野生动物,又有适应于草甸生境生活的动物种类;既有适应于河流、旷野生境生活的动物种类,也有适应于高草甸和高山流石滩生境的动物种类。

The diversity of habitat types provides suitable habitats for many wild animals, both forest-dwelling species adapted to alpine forests and species adapted to meadows. There are animal species adapted to rivers and wilderness habitats as well as species adapted to high meadows and alpine screes.


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图片来源:年保玉则协会 Source: Nyanpo Yutse Conservation Association

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人文历史 Culture & History


青藏高原幅员辽阔、山高路险,在漫长的历史中,逐渐分化出各具特色的文化区域,分别是“卫藏、康巴和安多”三域,且有“法域卫藏、马域安多、人域康巴”的说法,因卫藏佛法兴隆,康区人口众多,而安多地区盛产良马之故。

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a vast area with high mountains and steep roads. Throughout its long history, it has gradually divided into three distinctive cultural regions, namely "Ü-Tsang, Khampa, and Amdo". There is also a saying that "Ü-Tsang is the land of Buddhism, Amdo the land of horses, and Khampa the land of people".

昂赛所在的玉树地区便属于康巴藏区,康巴地区历史上处在汉藏过渡地带,在行政、宗教,经济和文化等方面都有明显的地域特征。康巴人最为人称道的是其直爽的民族共性,宗教方面尤为虔诚,有经商和远游传统,体格相对强壮等。

The Yushu region, where Angsai is located, is part of the Khampa Tibetan region. Khampa has always been in a transitional zone between the Han and Tibetan groups, and has distinct characteristics in administrative, religious, economic and cultural aspects. The Khampa people are known for their straightforward ethnicity and religious devotion. They have a tradition of business and travel and are relatively strong.


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青藏高原早期散居着大大小小的氏族部落,至少在8100年前就已有人类在玉树这片广袤的土地上生产生活。吐蕃王朝时玉树属苏毗或孙波如,是“唐蕃古道”上最为璀璨的明珠之一。今天的玉树历史上曾有过七十个部落,至1732年演变为四十个,到20世纪中叶落定为25个,史称“玉树二十五族”。而过去的杂多便属二十五族中的“格吉四族”,故也被当地人称为“格吉杂多”。

In the early days, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was scattered with large and small clans, and human have been living and working in the area of Yushu since at least 8,100 years ago. During the period of the Tubo Kingdom, Yushu was a part of Supi and was considered one of the brightest pearls on the Tang Fan Acient Road. Throughout its history, Yushu has had more than 70 tribes, which evolved into a total of 40 tribes by the year 1732, and the number fell into 25 by the mid 20th century. These tribes are known as "the 25 tribes of Yushu". The county of Zaduo used to belong to the "Four Tribes of Gegi", and therefore Zaduo is also known by the local people as "Gegi Zaduo".

格吉部落分为格吉多玛与格吉美玛,昂赛乡即为格吉美玛部落的发源地。部落最杰出的首领为尕玛伊杰,部落历经了蒙古的入侵,在民国时又被马氏家族统治,并英勇地反抗其残暴压迫;1949年玉树解放时,格吉美玛部落属囊谦千户所辖的领属百户之一;1958年时,格吉昂赛部落已有360户、1080人。格吉部落的往事久为传唱,寻访当地年岁稍长的老人,会发现他们知晓的故事并不比史书上少。

The tribes of Gegi are divided into Gegi Doma and Gegi Mima, and Angsai Township is the birthplace of Gegi Mima tribe. The tribe underwent the Mongolian invasion, and was ruled during the ROC period by the Ma family, whose brutal oppression was met with heroic resistance. When Yushu was liberated in 1949, the tribe of Gegi Mima was one of the hundred households of Nangqen. In 1958, the Gegi Angsai tribes had 360 households with a total of 1,080 people. The stories of Gegi tribes are widely told among people. Any elder from the area will know no less than any history book.

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