食肉动物

Carnivores

2021-07-10

雪豹 Snow Leopard(Panthera uncia)


分类Classification食肉目 CARNIVORA   猫科 Felidae

保护级别Protection Class: 国家一级 National Class I

体型数据:雄性头体长104-130 cm,体重25-55 kg;雌性头体长86-117 cm,体重21- 53 kg;尾长78-105 cm。

Size: male body length 104-130 cm, weight 25-55 kg; female body length 86-117 cm, weight 21-53 kg; tail length 78-105 cm


雪豹 零 2021.5.2-5.11.jpg


雪豹是著名的大型猫科动物,被称为“雪山之王”。雪豹的外形特征与它们的生活习性是高度适配的。从体色来说,雪豹整体毛色浅灰,有时略沾浅棕色,上面散布黑色的斑点和形状各异的圆环。这非常适合隐匿在雪线附近陡峭的裸岩区,很难被猎物发现。雪豹的尾巴和四肢也极具特色:四肢相较其他猫科动物短小,但尾长足足与头体长相当。灵活的身形和长尾巴给了雪豹极强的攀爬能力,使得雪豹具备了极强的在岩石间攀爬跳跃能力。

The snow leopard is a famous big cat, known as the “King of the Snow Mountains.” The snow leopard’s physical characteristics are highly compatible with its living habits. In terms of body color, the snow leopard’s overall coat is light gray, sometimes slightly tinged with light brown, with black spots and rings of various shapes scattered throughout. This is ideal for concealment in steep bare rock areas near the snow line and is difficult to be detected by prey. The tail and limbs of the snow leopard are also very distinctive: the limbs are short compared to other felines, but the tail is as long as the body. This flexibility in body and long tail gives the snow leopard great climbing ability, making it extremely capable of climbing and jumping between rocks.


雪豹 蒋天沐 2021.5_.jpg


在大猫谷,雪豹的目击率可以高达50%,绝大部分自然体验者也是慕雪豹之名来的。那如何在山间找到一只雪豹呢?雪豹隐蔽性极强,大部分时间也并不活跃,只凭肉眼在山间搜寻无异于大海捞针。寻找雪豹主要有三种方法:

In the valley of cats, the sighting rate of snow leopard can be as high as 50%. Most nature watch participants have also come in the hope of finding snow leopards. So how can one find a snow leopard in the mountains? Snow leopards are very secretive and not active for the most time. Searching the mountains with naked eye is like looking for a needle in the haystack. There are three main ways to find a snow leopard:

1.借助岩羊。因为雪豹偏爱岩羊,在裸岩区如果有很大的岩羊群存在,雪豹很可能就在羊群旁边伺机而动。运气好的时候,如果发现岩羊群突然受到惊扰,快速奔逃,没准就是雪豹展开捕猎行动了。

1. With the help of blue sheep. Snow leopards prefer to have blue sheep for food. If there is a large flock of blue sheep in the bare rock area, the snow leopards are very likely to be waiting next to the flock. If you are lucky and find that the sheep are suddenly disturbed and start to run away quickly, it is likely that snow leopards have start hunting.

2.借助家畜。在大猫谷中,有时会有雪豹袭击家畜的事情发生。如果您的牧民向导得到了谷中有雪豹袭击家畜的消息,不妨在死掉的家畜百米开外进行蹲守,雪豹在这个时候有极高的目击率!

2. With the help of livestock. In the Valley of Cats, there are times when snow leopards attack livestock. If your herdsman guide gets the news of a snow leopard attacking livestock in the valley, you may want to stay a hundred meters away from the dead livestock. It is very likely to see the snow leopard at this time!

3.借助雪豹叫声。雪豹于每年冬季过后的3月发情。在发情期间,山谷中偶尔能听到穿透力强、辨识度很高的雪豹叫声。寻声觅雪豹,这使得每年的3月成为了雪豹目击率较高的月份。

3. With the help of calls of the snow leopard. Snow leopards come into estrous cycle in March every year. During this time, the penetrating and highly recognizable calls can be occasionally heard in the valley. Searching for snow leopards by their calls also makes March the month of the year with highest sighting rate.



金钱豹 Common Leopard(Panthera pardus)


分类Classification: 食肉目 CARNIVORA 猫科 Felidae

保护级别Protection Class: 国家一级 National Class I

体型数据:身长约90-196 cm,尾长66-102 cm。头圆,颈短,耳背黑色,上有明显白斑,耳尖黄色。

Size: body length 90-196 cm, tail length 66-102 cm, with round head, short neck, black ear back with a distinct white spot on it, and yellow ear tips.


金钱豹 黄裕炜.jpg


金钱豹是分布甚广、适应能力很强的大型猫科动物。我们平时说的豹子、豹、花豹,都指金钱豹。金钱豹有肌肉发达的身体、功能强大的的爪子和其强大的颚,使其能够轻易杀死和肢解猎物。豹也是一个非常灵活的登山者,肩部和前肢大量发达的肌肉,这有助于它爬坡和把猎物拖到树上 。区别于雪豹,金钱豹有着暗金色的基色、大而壮硕的身形。金钱豹的这些特征并不像雪豹一样为雪线的裸岩而设计,更适合藏匿穿行于海拔较低的森林之中。雪豹以岩羊为主食,而金钱豹更偏好林间常见的白唇鹿和偶见的一蹦一跳的“大兔子”马麝。在食物丰富的地方,活动范围较固定;当食物匮乏时,则游荡数十公里觅食。

The common leopard is a large cat with wide distribution and high adaptability. When we talk about leopards and panthers, we are referring to the common leopard. The common leopard has a muscular body, powerful claws and its strong jaw that enable it to easily kill and dismember its prey. The leopard is also a very agile mountain climber, with heavily muscled shoulders and forelimbs that help it climb slopes and drag prey to trees. Different from the snow leopard, the common leopard has a dark golden base color and a large, stout body. These features are not designed for bare rock areas at the snow line like those of the snow leopard, but are better suited for hiding through forests at lower elevation. While snow leopards feed on blue sheep, common leopards prefer the common white-lipped deer and the occasional “big bunny” musk deer. When food is abundant, the common leopard’s range of activity is relatively constant; when food is deficient, the leopard can wander for tens of kilometers to hunt.

昂赛是少数发现了金钱豹与雪豹共存的区域:两种大猫同时出现在海拔4000左右的针叶林、高山灌丛或高山草甸生境中。这是昂赛的生态系统完整且健康的有力证明。多年以来,山水的保护工作也着力于这两种大猫,因为顶级的食肉动物不仅是生态繁荣的标志也是保护整个地区食物链的关键。一旦某个地区生态系统的完整性受到破坏时,往往最先消失的是食肉动物,它们或迁走或消失。

Angsai is one of the few areas where common leopards and snow leopards coexist: both big cats are found in coniferous forests, alpine scrub, or alpine meadow habitats at an altitude of around 4,000 meters. This is a strong testament to the integrity and well-being of the ecosystem in Angsai. Over the years, Shan Shui Conservation Center have made huge efforts to protect these two types of animals. Top predators are not only a sign of ecological prosperity but also the key to protecting the food chain of the whole region. When the integrity of an area’s ecosystem is compromised, it is often the carnivores that first disappear, either by moving away or disappearing.


猞猁 Lynx(Lynx lynx)


分类Classification食肉目 CARNIVORA   猫科 Felidae

保护级别Protection Class: 国家二级 National Class II

体型数据:雄性头体长76-148cm,体重12-38kg;雌性头体长85-130cm,体重13-21kg。

Size: male body length 76-148 cm, weight 12-38 kg; female body length 85-130 cm, weight 13-21 kg

体色:基本毛色为沙黄色至灰棕色,并分布有黑色或暗棕色的斑点(部分斑点十分模糊)。本区域内的猞猁一般毛色较浅,斑点不明显。喉部及腹部毛色白或浅灰。

Color: The basic fur color is sandy yellow to grayish brown, and is distributed with black or dark brown spots (some spots are very faint). The lynx in this region generally have lighter fur color and inconspicuous spots. The throat and abdomen fur color is either white or light gray.


猞猁 孙家杰 2 2021.3.jpg


猞猁为身体壮实的中等体型猫科动物,它们远大于家猫,却又小于豹等大型猫科动物。猞猁最为人熟知的特点便是耳尖有一撮黑色的毛簇。在直立的三角形耳朵上,毛簇可长达4-5cm。很像喜剧中武将头盔上的翎子,为其增添了几分威严的气势。猞猁的耳朵和毛簇能够随时迎向声源方向运动,有收集音波的作用。除此之外,猞猁还有着大长腿和短尾巴。猞猁尾巴短到可以忽略,但是它们四肢修长,四足宽大,就像穿着雪地靴。它们分布在欧亚大陆寒冷气候的各种生境,宽大的四足可以在厚厚的积雪中穿行自如。

Lynx are sturdy, medium-sized feline that are much larger than domestic cats, but smaller than big cats like leopards. The most well-known feature of lynx is the black tuft of hair at the tip of the ear. On the upright triangular ears, the tufts can be 4-5 cm long. Lynx ears and hair clusters can always face the direction of the sound source and play the role of collecting sound waves. In addition, the lynx has large long legs and short tail. The lynx tail is so short that it can be ignored, but they have long limbs and wide feet, as if they were wearing boots. Lynx are found in a variety of habitats in the cold climates of Eurasia, and their wide feet can easily walk through thick snow.

野兔是猞猁的最爱,它们最常使用的捕食策略是“守株待兔”:在捕捉猎物时,它们常常埋伏在草丛、灌丛、石头等掩体之中,然后静静等待非常长时间,待猎物靠近时,才出其不意地冲出来,捕获猎物。除了高原兔之外,猞猁也捕食啮齿类、鼠兔、旱獭与小型有蹄类(马麝等)。

Hare is a favorite of the lynx, and their most common feeding strategy is to “wait for the hare”: when capturing prey, they often ambush in grass, bushes, rocks and other cover, and quietly wait for a very long time. Only when the prey is close would they come out unexpectedly and capture the animal. In addition to woolly hare, lynx also prey on rodents, pika, marmot and small ungulates (musk deer, etc.)


狼 Wolf(Canis lupus)


分类Classification食肉目 CARNIVORA   犬科 Canidae

保护级别Protection Class: 国家二级 National Class II

体型数据:头体长87-130cm,尾长35-50cm,雄性体重20-80kg,雌性体重18-55kg。

Size: body length 87-130 cm, tail length 35-50 cm, male weight 20-80 kg, female weight 18-55 kg.


狼 李语秋 2020.12.jpg


作为犬科动物中体型最大者,和其他犬科动物相比,狼的吻鼻部相对比例较长、双耳及双眼朝向正前方、四肢相对身体的比例较长。狼的典型毛色为沾棕的灰色,但具有多种多样的毛色变化,包括棕黄色、棕灰色及灰黑色,通常背部毛色较深而腹部稍浅。冬毛比夏毛更为浓密、厚实,毛色通常更深。

As the largest of the Canidae family, the wolf has a longer muzzle than others, with ears and eyes facing forward, and longer limbs in proportion to its body. The typical coat color of wolves is brownish gray, but there are many variations of coat colors, including tan, brownish gray and gray-black, usually with a darker dorsal coat and a lighter belly. The winter coat is denser and thicker than the summer coat, and the coat color is usually darker.

三江源地区是中国境内的狼仅存的栖息地之一。相比于猫科动物的独来独往,狼有很强的社会性,更喜欢一起捕猎一起分食。当然,牧民们对此也很是头疼,因为当发现狼群捕食了牦牛时,往往狼群已经把牛吃掉一大半了——让商业的牛羊保险更难赔付了。

The Sanjiangyuan area is one of the few remaining habitats for wolves in China. Compared with the solitary nature of felines, wolves have a strong social nature and prefer to hunt and share food together. Of course, the herders are concerned about this because when wolves are found to have preyed on yaks, they often have already eaten a large portion of the herd - making it more difficult for commercial insurance to pay for the loss.


棕熊 Tibetan Brwon Bear (Ursus arctos)


类Classification食肉目 CARNIVORA  熊科 Ursidae

保护级别 Protection Class:国家二级 National Class II

体型数据:雄性头体长160-280cm,体重135-725kg;雌性头体长140-228cm,体重55-277kg;尾长6.5·21cm。

Size: male body length 160-280 cm, weight 135-725 kg; female body length 140-228 cm, weight 55-277 kg; tail length 6.5-21 cm.


熊 Fédéric Larrey.jpg


棕熊是体型壮硕的熊科动物,棕熊是我国分布的体型最大的陆生食肉目动物,但不同地理种群或亚种间体型具有较大变异。在三江源分布的西藏棕熊体型相对较小。在青藏高原及周边地区分布的棕熊,不管主体基调是什么颜色,通常毛色显得斑驳,四肢色深,身体和头部色浅;许多个体颈部一周有白色或污黄色的浅色带,并会延伸至肩部和胸部,但其尺寸变化很大,在部分个体中甚至完全缺失。西藏棕熊是棕熊的亚种之一,亦称藏马熊或藏熊。在昂赛地区的藏语名发音“遮莫”/“遮蒙”。

The brown bear is large and strong. It is the largest terrestrial carnivore distributed in China, but there is considerable variation in size among different geographic subspecies. The Tibetan brown bears in the Sanjiangyuan area are relatively small in size. Brown bears distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and surrounding areas, regardless of the main body color, usually have a mottled appearance, with dark extremities and lighter body and head color; many individuals have a light white or dirty yellow band around the neck that extends to shoulders and chest, but the size is highly variable and, in some individuals, it is even completely absent. The Tibetan brown bear is one of the subspecies of the brown bear, also known as the Tibetan bear or Tibetan blue bear. In Angsai, local people call them DreMong.

藏棕熊也许是青藏高原上最令人畏惧的生物。甚至在当地牧民口中,只要见到熊,恐怕就离死不远了。

The Tibetan brown bear is perhaps the most feared creature on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. According to local herders, if one sees a bear, he or she is almost at the edge of death.

在青藏高原上的所有动物里,熊与人类的冲突最直接且剧烈。大部分牧户的家,尤其是冬窝子,都或多或少地被熊扒过。故事的起因是牧民常常会在自己冬季牧场的家里(不同于夏季牧场的帐篷,冬季牧场都是固定房屋)留一些面粉粮食等。而嗅觉灵敏而聪明的棕熊很快就学会了扒房子而获取食物的这一操作——毕竟比辛辛苦苦寻找并捕捉猎物要来的简单地多。可熊的这一行为给人类也带来了极多的困扰,至少修房子和被熊拍坏的家具就价格不菲,常常一年要花上几千至几万的价格修缮,对于一个普通的牧区家庭是一笔不小的金额。

Of all the animals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, bears have the most direct and violent conflicts with people. Most herders’ homes have been attacked by bears to various degrees,specially in the winter. Herders often leave some flour and grain in their winter homes (unlike summer pasture tents, winter homes are built houses.) Smart brown bears soon learnt to find food from people’s homes - after all, it is much easier than to catch a prey. Such behavior causes much trouble to people. Even the repairing of houses and furniture can reach tens of thousands a year and can be a huge cost for an average nomadic family.


欧亚水獭 Euraisan Otter(Lutra lutra)


类Classification食肉目 CARNIVORA 鼬科 Mustelidae

保护级别 Protection Class:国家二级 National Class II

体型数据:雄性头体长60-90cm,体重6-17kg;雌性头体长59-70kg,体重6-12kg;尾长33-47cm。

Size: male body length 160-280 cm, weight 135-725 kg; female body length 140-228 cm, weight 55-277 kg; tail length 6.5-21 cm.


水獭 达保.jpg


欧亚水獭广布欧亚大陆,三江源是其海拔最高又重要的栖息地之一。在三江源栖息于河流生境,偏好流动的水体,可分布至4000m以上。水獭极善游泳与潜水,通过后肢和尾巴摆动作为推动,以波浪式起伏的姿态在水中活动与觅食。它是水生生态的顶级捕食者和旗舰物种,其主要食物为鱼类,但也会偶尔捕食水生甲壳动物、蛙类、鸟类、啮齿类、兔类和人类宰杀的动物的内脏。水獭主要为独居或成对活动,且具有领域性,夜间和晨昏活动为主,较少白天活动,这也是目前国内研究人员知之甚少的原因之一,相对大部分青藏高原上有记录的动物来讲,水獭是这片高原上最神秘的一种生物。

The Eurasian otter is widespread in Eurasia, with the Sanjiangyuan area being one of its highest and most important habitats. The otter inhabits riverine habitats in Sanjiangyuan, preferring flowing bodies of water, and can be found above 4,000 meters. The otter is an excellent swimmer and diver, moving and feeding through the water in a wave-like undulating posture, propelled by its hind limbs and tail swing. It is the top predator and flagship species of the aquatic ecology, with its main diet being fish, but it also occasionally preys on aquatic crustaceans, frogs, birds, rodents, rabbits and offal of animals slaughtered by humans. Otters are mainly solitary or paired, and are very territorial. They are active at night, in the morning and evening, but rarely during the day, which is one of the reasons why very little is known by domestic researchers. Compared to most of the animals recorded on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, otter is one of the most mysterious one.

虽然在结古镇的巴塘河、昂赛的扎曲之中,水獭的遇见率很低。不过找到水獭的痕迹却相对容易:在有水獭分布的河边石头上,能看到水獭的粪便。粪便十分腥臭,含有大量的鱼骨。

Although it is difficult to encounter otters in the Batang River, Yushu and the Zhaqu River, Angsai, finding their traces are relatively easy: otter droppings can be seen on rocks along the river. The droppings are very stinky and contain a lot of fish bones.


赤狐 Red Fox(Vulpes vulpes)


类Classification食肉目 CARNIVORA 犬科Canidae

保护级别 Protection Class:国家二级 National Class II

体型数据:雄性头体长59-90cm,体重4-14kg;雌性头体长50-65cm,体重3.5-7.5kg;尾长28-49cm。

Size: male body length 59-90 cm, weight 4-14 kg; female body length 50-65 cm, weight 3.5-7.5 kg; tail length 28-49 cm.


赤狐 李语秋 2020.11.jpg


和藏狐相比,赤狐可以说是美貌担当。它们在昂赛比较常见,可能在夜晚出现在路边。

Compared to the Tibetan fox, the red fox can be considered a beauty. They are more common in Angsai and may appear on the roadside at night.


  • 注:本文收录的兽类都是在昂赛峡谷有较大可能被体验者目击的动物,其中不包括:藏狐、兔狲、豹猫、香鼬、艾鼬、石貂、黄喉貂等。

  • Note: The animals included here are all animals that have a greater likelihood of being sighted by nature watch participants in the Angsai Valley, excluding: Tibetan fox, manul, leopard cat, mountain weasel, stone marten, yellow-throated marten, etc.