自然体验 About Nature Watch

什么是自然体验  About Nature Watch

大猫谷自然体验是一项基于社区的生态旅游活动(community-based ecotourism)。根据IUCN的定义,生态旅游(ecotourism)指对相对未受干扰的自然地具有环境责任的旅行和探访,目的是享受和欣赏自然(以及任何连带的文化特征,包括过去的与现存的),这种旅游活动可促进保护,有较低的游客冲击度,并且为当地人提供了有利而活跃的社会经济参与机会。1987年,联合国出版了报告《我们共同的未来》,确定了可持续发展和资源保护的必要性。此后,对社会经济和环境效益均有贡献的生态旅游,进入了学界和大众视野。除了最常见的“生态旅游”之外,以自然景观和生物多样性为基础的旅游项目也常被表述为“可持续旅游”、“自然体验”、“自然观察”、“保护旅游”、“绿色旅游”等。

Valley of the Cats Nature Watch is a community-based ecotourism project. According to the IUCN, ecotourism refers to "environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features—both past and present) that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations". In 1987, the United Nations published the report "Our Common Future", which identified the need for sustainable development and resource conservation. Since then, ecotourism, which contributes to both socioeconomic and environmental benefits, has entered both the academic and public eye. In addition to the most commonly used term "ecotourism", tourism programs based on natural landscapes and biodiversity are also described as "sustainable tourism", "nature watch", "nature observation", "conservation tourism",  "green tourism", etc,.


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随着自然保护区内居民的生存状况日益受到关注,基于社区的生态旅游开始被越来越多的人视为实现保护与发展的较理想方案,其重点在于当地社区直接参与项目管理和运作。自然体验项目将自然保护和社会发展融为一体。当地牧民通过担任自然体验的向导和接待家庭,可以获得切实的收入,直观地体会到保护好家乡的一方山水和动物,将有益自己的家庭和社区的发展。从而,也避免了人们消耗自然资源换取收入的可能。

With the growing concern for the lives of people living in nature reserves, community-based ecotourism is considered by more people as a much desirable solution for achieving conservation and development with the focus on the direct participation of local communities in project management and operation. Nature watch program integrates nature conservation and social development. By serving as guides and host families, local herders can earn an increased amount of income and realize that protecting their home landscape and wildlife will benefit their own families and communities, thus diminishing the possibility of consuming natural resources in exchange for money.


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两届自然观察节 Nature Watch Festivals

在正式开展自然体验试点项目前,昂赛乡举办了两届自然观察节。让全世界各地的自然观察爱好者们来到国家公园观察野生动物,也为国家公园的建设提供自己宝贵的意见。也正是这两届自然观察节让牧民们第一次体验到做向导的意义和职责。

Prior to the official launch of Nature Watch Pilot Project, two nature watch festivals were held in Angsai. Nature watch enthusiasts from all over the world came to the pilot national park to observe wildlife and also to provide their valuable input to the construction of the national park. These two nature watch festivals also allowed herders to experience for the first time the meaning and responsibility of being a guide.

2016年8月17日-22日,玉树州杂多县人民政府、三江源国家公园澜沧江源园区管委会、山水自然保护中心与北京大学自然保护与社会发展研究中心于青海杂多县昂赛乡举办了“首届澜沧江源国际自然观察节”。

From August 17-22, 2016, the People’s Government of Zaduo County, Yushu Prefecture, the Management Committee of Lancang River Park in Sanjiangyuan National Park, Shan Shui Conservation Center and Peking University Center for Nature and Society jointly held the First Lancang River International Nature Watch Festival in Angsai, Zaduo County, Qinghai. 

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4天的时间,14个参赛队伍通过影像记录兽类、鸟类及植物等物种的类别与分布,帮助建立起昂赛澜沧江大峡谷的本底数据,经初步统计,共记录兽类10种、鸟类61种、植物93种。每个参赛队员收获颇丰的背后,还有我们看不见的推动。在以生物多样性认知和观赏为主要内容的自然体验模式下,本地社区得到了最大的参与和收益。

Over the course of 4 days, 14 teams identified and recorded the distribution of animals, birds and plants through videos and images, helping to establish the baseline data of Angsai Lancang River Valley. Preliminary statistics showed that a total of 10 mammal species, 61 bird and 93 plant species were recorded. Behind the fruitful harvest of each participant, there was also invisible progress. The local community received the most participation and benefit from this nature watch model that focused on biodiversity awareness and viewing.


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2018年7月21日-24日,昂赛举办了第二次国际自然观察节,期间来自中、美、英、法等国选手组成的20支参赛队伍参与其中,经统计,本次观察节影像记录到兽类13种、鸟类73种、植物315种、两爬类4种。

From July 21-24, 2018, Angsai held the Second International Nature Watch Festival. 20 teams from China, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and other countries participated in this festival, during which 13 mammal species, 73 bird species, 315 plant species and 4 reptile species were recorded.


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昂赛自然体验项目 Nature Watch in Angsai

基于自然观察节的经验,山水、社区、当地政府以及其他自然保护爱好者开始不约而同地形成一些想法——希望摸索一种模式,能够将物种保护、社区发展、公众参与、政府管理等多方面的诉求整合在一起。此后,昂赛当地社区合作社在山水自然保护中心和当地政府的支持下,开展了自然体验活动,由当地牧民担任自然体验向导和接待家庭,带领自然体验者在这里观看雪豹等珍稀野生动物、欣赏自然和文化景观、体验牧区生活。

With the experience of Nature Watch Festival, Shan Shui, the community, local government and other nature conservation enthusiasts began to form some ideas -- they hoped to figure out a model that could integrate the demand of species conservation, community development, public participation and government management. Since then, the local community cooperative of Angsai, with the support of Shan Shui Conservation Center and local government, has launched a series of nature watch activities, with local herders serving as nature watch guides and host families and leading nature watch participates to view rare wildlife such as snow leopards, enjoy the natural and cultural landscape, and experience pastoral life.

2018年起至2020年,合作社和山水自然保护中心合作,对选拔出的21户自然体验接待家庭开展了6次集中向导培训,并分别对每户家庭进行烹饪技能、接待服务、医疗常识等方面的入户培训。

From 2018 to 2020, the cooperative has worked with Shan Shui Conservation Center to conduct 6 comprehensive guide training sessions for 21 selected host families. These sessions include in-home training of cooking skills, hospitality services, and general medical knowledge for each family respectively.


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此外,山水与社区多次协商,完成了包括合作社管理章程、自然体验者守则等在内的管理制度设计,以及三语自然观察手册、双语接待家庭手册、接待家庭资料等在内的自然体验项目产品设计,建立了昂赛自然体验项目宣传和预约网站“大猫谷”(valleyofthecats.org.cn)。

Shan Shui has also discussed many times with the community to complete the design of the management mechanism, including the cooperative’s management charter and the code for nature watch participants. It has also completed the design of a series of nature program products, including the trilingual manual, bilingual host family manual, and materials of host families and established the website “Valley of the Cats” for the promotion and reservation of Angsai nature watch programvalleyofthecats.org.cn).

在此期间,山水也协助社区进行过数次会议,除了诸如选拔接待家庭、管理小组换届等较为重要的决策,更多情况下是对管理和接待细节方面的讨论,其中不免有意见的争执和反复,但就是在一次次的调整和变动中,社区成员也在越来越多地参与其中,在更为深入地了解和思考下,共同推动自然体验产品的不断完善。

At the same time, Shan Shui has assisted the community to hold several meetings. In addition to the more important decisions such as selecting host families, changing the term of management team, etc., it also helped with the discussion of details in aspects of management and hospitality. There were inevitably arguments and repetitions of opinions, but it was through these adjustments and changes that the community members became more involved, and promoted the constant improvement of nature watch program with a more in-depth understanding and thinking.


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经过合作社全体社员的多次讨论与协商,昂赛自然体验于2018年底开始采取社区集体收益分配制度。项目现采取交通与向导费1000元/车/天,食宿费300元/人/晚的收费标准。在项目的全部收益中,45%为接待家庭所得,45%纳入社区基金,用于社区公共事务,10%用于昂赛区域的生态保护工作(例如建立社区野生动物保护基金)。

After many discussions and negotiations with members of the cooperative, Angsai Nature Watch Program started to adopt a collective community revenue distribution system at the end of 2018. The current charging standard is 1,000 RMB/car/day for transportation and guide, and 300 RMB/person/night for food and accommodation. 45% of the total proceeds from the project will be earned by the host families, 45% incorporated into a community fund for public affairs, and 10% used for ecological conservation in the Angsai area (e.g. establishing a community wildlife conservation fund).

2018年项目开展至2020年,昂赛自然体验项目共接待了来自世界各地的133支自然体验团队,共计408人次,为社区带来逾136万元的总收益,其中社区公共基金约48万元,接待家庭平均增收约3.8万元。

The program started in 2018. By 2020, the Angsai Nature Watch program has hosted 133 nature watch teams from around the world with a total of 408 visits, bringing in over 1.36 million RMB in total revenue to the community, including approximately 480,000 RMB in community fund and an average increase in income of 38,000 RMB for host families.


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“大猫谷”的愿景 Our Vision

“我们希望和社区逐步的讨论和完善,看如何基于社区的态度、意愿,来最大程度的与市场接轨的调整,总体上来说,我们希望在社区为主体和游客意愿,传统保留和现代服务,个体牧民和社区集体,公平和效率之间寻求平衡,并且一边做一边观察和记录。

在这片土地上,我们花了很多的时间和社区来讨论,是因为我们更希望看到集体行动的价值,而不是通过市场化,去打破集体的结构。因为一个集体,如果能够和外部保持一定距离,就能够和宏大的叙事进行沟通和迂回,最终选择适宜的应对方式,让这些宏大叙事柔软一些。”

" We want to discuss and improve with the community step by step to see how to adjust to the maximum extent with the market based on the attitude and willingness of the community. In general, we hope to find a balance between the main body of community and the will of visitors, traditional preservation and modern services, individual herders and community collectives, as well as equity and efficiency. We are also making observations and recordings as we go.

Here, we spend a lot of time discussing with the community because we want to see the value of collective action rather than to break the structure of the community through marketization. If a community can keep some distance from the outside, it will adapt better to policies and find the most suitable way to cope with them."

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了解更多 More

  • 短片 Short film:

《大猫谷——人与雪豹的可能》“Valley of the Cats - the Possibility for People and Snow Leopards”

如果山水的雪豹项目需要一个完整叙述的故事,大猫谷无疑是合适的。从雪豹监测和研究开始,在这个地方,我们曾经以及正在试图讲述一个地方人与雪豹共存的可能。这些工作,后来刚好得以与三江源国家公园体制试点建设结合了起来。对于社会公众来说,自然体验带来了什么?对于当地社区而言,特许经营又意味着什么?公众期待的是什么样的自然体验?社区需要的又是怎样的特许经营?曾经有人评价说,相比起国家公园特许经营试点的探索经验,大猫谷自然体验提供的价值可能更多在于它所开启的这一场社会实验。

If the snow leopard project of Shan Shui needs a complete narrative, the story of the Valley of the Cats is definitely the most suitable one. Starting with snow leopard monitoring and research, we have been trying to tell the story of a place where it is possible for human and snow leopards to coexist. Such efforts were later combined with the construction of Sanjiangyuan National Park system pilot project. What does nature watch bring to the public? What do concessions mean to the local community? What kind of nature watch does the public expect? What kind of concessions do local communities need? Someone once said that compared to the experience of exploring concession pilot project in national parks, the value of the Valley of Cats is more about this social experiment it has started.

  • 公众号文章 WeChat Official Accounts Articles (in Chinese)

关于自然体验 有几句话想告诉关心国家公园的你 (A few words about nature watch for those who care about national parks)

地球日主角,我想留给那些离大地最近的人 (The Protagonists of Earth Day are those stand closest to the earth)

这个牧民合作社,为什么可以申请国家公园第一个特许经营权? (Why is this cooperative able to apply for the first concession in the national park?)

在大猫谷,我们把自己作为方法  (In the Valley of Cats, We make ourselves the solution)